CCTV Basic Course

Introduction

CCTV Basic Course

Regardless of the technology you use to design and implement a system of security CCTV, there are issues that must be taken into account in all situations. First, what information you want the system or components provide? There are three possible answers:

  • Detection– indicate whether something is happening in the area of interest .
  • Recognition– determine exactly what is happening.
  • Identification– determine who is involved in the activity.

Your answer will affect the kind of equipment required for an application of CCTV. In turn, there are other basic considerations that influence the design of the CCTV system and among them is obviously the budget . These include:

  • Thequalityof image required.
  • The size of the area of interest to be observed.
  • Thelightavailable (there may be a need for additional light).
  • Theenvironmentin which the equipment will be used (interior vs. exterior, standard vs. high risk of damage ).
  • The powersupply.

CCTV Basic Course 1

Each of these points affects the design of CCTV. For example, if a more accurate representation of a scene is required, its design specifications may require cameras colored as opposed to monochrome cameras. While if what you seek is greater detail and resolution, a black and white camera sensitive to low light conditions or Day / Night camera represent a better option. As a general rule, color cameras and monitors should be used in systems whose purpose is identification.

Basics of CCTV Cameras

Choosing the right CCTV camera may seem a process complex because there are many factors to consider. However, it is important to note that all cameras are composed of three basic elements:

  • The image sensor – converts the image signals electronic.
  • Lens – joins the reflected light from the subject
  • processing circuit pictures- organizes, optimizes and transmits signals.

According to SECURITYPOLOGY.COM, CCTV cameras are available as: monochrome, color and day / night (combines monochromatic color).

CCTV Basic Course 2

The advantages of monochrome camera are higher resolution, lower light requirements and are generally less expensive. Moreover, the Color camera offers better overall representation of the scene (with lighting appropriate) and also has improved for the identification and subsequent persecution capabilities. Day / Night cameras offer the best of both worlds and now are becoming the technology CCTV chosen by consumers for both indoor and outdoor applications.

Image Sensors

The heart of modern CCTV cameras is the sensor CCD (Charge Coupled Device). A CCD is a flat array of small light sensitive and converting the latter into electrical signals photodiodes. Each diode produces a directly proportional to the amount of light falling on the voltage. No light produces a zero voltage, and therefore, a black level. The maximum amount of light produces a maximum voltage level (white level). Between these extremes are all shades of gray. In the case of a colored camera, a chrominance signal is superimposed on the luminance signal corresponding to carry the color information.

The camera processes this electric signal and converts signal output video , which is then recorded or reproduced on a monitor . The range of light levels that a CCD can handle is somewhat limited, so that the range of the CCD receives light should be restricted within certain limits .

CCTV Basic Course 3

Video signal

All images in movement are actually composed of only still pictures – or pictures. Each frame consists of two fields. A video field is created when the CCD is scanned vertically and horizontally exactly 262 times and half way – and this is reproduced on the monitor. A second scan of 262 lines and a half is done exactly midline below and is linked to the first scan to form a picture with 525 lines. When these two fields are properly synchronized in a ratio of 2: 1, form a complete video frame.

 

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