The trade balance is the registration of imports and exports of goods and products in a country for a certain period of time.
The trade balance is one of the components of the balance of payments, which is a detailed record of all the economic transactions produced between one country and the other countries of the world with which it has commercial relations.
The difference between exports (that is, goods or products sold) and imports (that is, goods or products purchased) results in the balance of the trade balance.
The trade balance is positive when a surplus occurs , that is, when the total value of exports is higher than that of imports.
On the other hand, the trade balance is negative when there is a deficit, or, in other words, when the sum of all imports exceeds that of exports.
A positive trade balance country is a predominantly exporting country, while one with a negative trade balance is considered an importing country.
On the other hand, we say that the trade balance is in balance when the volume of exports in relation to that of imports is similar.
The importance of the trade balance in economics is that its calculation helps economists and financial analysts understand the economic potential of a country in relation to others, which helps determine with which country to establish business relationships, or where it would be more convenient to invest.
Favorable and unfavorable trade balance
The trade balance may be favorable or unfavorable for a country, depending on different factors of economic dynamics.
A favorable trade balance is one that presents a surplus, usually based on a set of economic policies aimed at maintaining or improving this situation. A favorable trade balance, then, implies that exports are higher than imports, resulting in a higher level of income for a country.
An unfavorable trade balance, on the other hand, implies a deficit situation in the relationship between exports and imports. In this case, the country spends more than it enters, which can generate indebtedness and deterioration in the quality of life of citizens.